Surface effect of electrodes revealed by operando surface science methodology

Surface effect of electrodes revealed by operando surface science methodology

Surface effect of electrodes revealed by operando surface science methodology

Surface and interface play critical roles in energy storage devices, thus calling for in-situ/operando methods to probe the electrified surface/interface. However, the commonly used in-situ/operando characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray spectroscopy and topography, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are based on the structural, electronic and chemical information in bulk region of the electrodes or electrolytes.
Surface effect of electrodes revealed by operando surface science methodology